Minerals and water resources


Many types of minerals have been identified and studied to varying degrees in the region. 286 deposits have been explored. Among them, 34 are metal, 2 are non-metals, 217 are construction and technological raw materials, and 33 are groundwater, of which 6 are mineral.

The territory of the region is part of the North Kazakhstan uranium-ore, diamond-bearing and tin-rare metal province. It revealed significant reserves of mineral raw materials, which are in the balance of the Republic of Kazakhstan: tin - 65%, zirconium - 36.6%, uranium - 19%, titanium - 5%, tungsten - 1.1%. The prospects for expanding the mineral resource base are very significant, especially in the south-west of the region. There are a number of significant deposits and ore occurrences of gold, silver, technical and jewelry diamonds, tin, titanium, non-ferrous and rare metals, brown coal.

Only a few deposits of building stone and sand are in operation. Exploration was carried out and reserves were approved with the transition to mining at the gold deposit in the Esil region; in December 2014, the Aulie Gold Mining LLP enterprise was launched for the industrial development of the Auliye gold deposit with the construction of a complex for the extraction and extraction of gold.

Also, work is underway to prepare for the industrial development of the Aksoran tungsten deposit, geological exploration is underway at the Bayan tungsten deposit in the Ayyrtau region.

Water resources

The region's water resources consist of the resources of the Esil River with the Akkanburluk and Imanburluk tributaries, the Selety, Chaglinka, Kamysakty, Ashisu, Karasu rivers and other watercourses, there are 2488 reservoirs, 491 reservoirs are fishery, of which 297 are leased.

1. Surface waters. The main water source of the region is the Esil River, its length in the region is 690 km. The average long-term annual flow of the river is 2.23 km3. Freeze-up occurs in the second half of November, the duration of freeze-up is 5 months. Esil belongs to the rivers with increased water salinity, which is due to the aridity of the drainage basin climate and the high salinity of groundwater that feed the river. The total mineralization of water reaches 500-800 mg / l during low-water periods, the water is hard. The oxygen regime is satisfactory.

The water regime of the river is characterized by a pronounced spring flood and a long low-water period. The duration of high water in the upper and middle reaches of the river is 1-1.5 months and increases downstream to 2-3 months. The share of spring floods accounts for 86-95% of the annual runoff.

Surface runoff of the river. Esil is used for water supply to the city of Petropavlovsk, rural settlements of the North Kazakhstan region, irrigation of summer cottages, etc. Esil belongs to the system of the river. Ob. Esil originates in the city of Niyaz (Saryarka) at an altitude of 560 m above sea level, flows into the river. Irtysh. The length of the river is 2,450 km, it is the world's longest tributary of the second order; the catchment area is 177,000 km2, the fall of the river from source to mouth is 513 m, the average slope is 21 cm / km. The formation of the Esil river runoff occurs within the Kazakhstan Uplands.

Esil belongs to the type of rivers with exclusively snow supply, giving more than 80% of the annual runoff. The river regime is distinguished by a pronounced spring flood, the beginning of which usually falls on April 10-12, and the peak - in the third decade of April.

Within the region, the river bed is regulated by the Petropavlovsky and Sergeevsky reservoirs. The total total capacity of the two reservoirs under the project is 712.2 million m3, of which Sergeevskoye - 693 million m3, Petropavlovskoye - 19.2 million m3.

The Sergeevsky hydroelectric complex (located in the middle course of the Esil River, 175 km above the city of Petropavlovsk) forms a reservoir for long-term flow regulation, with the highest full level - 138.0 m, extending upstream for almost 100 km. The total volume is 693 million m3, the useful volume is 635 million m3. The reservoir was filled during the 1970 flood. The Sergeevsky hydroelectric complex with a reservoir has existed since 1969.

The Petropavlovskoe reservoir of seasonal regulation with a hydroelectric complex is located in the middle reaches of the river. Esil near the city of Petropavlovsk, commissioned in 1973. This reservoir, working in a cascade with the Sergeevskoye reservoir, forms a single water management complex intended for household, drinking and technical water supply to consumers in the region.

North Kazakhstan region is rich in lakes. There are about 2209 lakes on the territory of the region, which are an integral part of the landscape of the region. The total area of ​​the water surface of the lakes reaches 275 thousand hectares, the volume of water is about 4.5 billion m3. The prevailing depths of the lakes are 1.5-3.0 meters. The largest lakes are: Silyt-Teniz (area - 68,000 hectares), lake. Teke (22,200 ha), Lake Shagly-Teniz (20,572 ha), lake. Ulken Karoy (19,700 hectares), lake. Imantau (5423 ha), lake. Zhaksy Zhangiztau (4128 ha), lake. Big Tarangul (3475 ha).

The existence of closed lakes is supported by the presence of catchment areas or catchments. The incoming part of the balance is mainly atmospheric precipitation falling on the water surface (about 350 mm / year), and water flowing into the lake from the catchment area, less often an underground inflow is added. The consumable part of the balance consists of evaporation from an open water surface (evaporates about 650-700 mm / year). Thus, the catchment is an integral part of the lake ecosystem. The catchment areas are different, but generally they are 3-5 times larger than the water area of ​​the lakes, which is typical for the plains.

2. Groundwater. There are about 20 underground water deposits in the North Kazakhstan region, which are used as alternative sources of water supply to settlements through drilling and arrangement of wells.

Predicted volumes of groundwater in the area of ​​the catchment area of ​​the river. Ishim are 85.1 million m3 / year.

In general, 87.3% of the region's population is provided with centralized water supply, including piped drinking water from group water pipelines - 69%, underground sources - 18.3%. Decentralized water supply is used by 12.5% ​​of the region's population, 0.2% use imported water.